The Openness


This is another piece of learning experience comparison between MOOCs and online degree program courses – Openness. The further I explore into these two worlds, the more thorough I got to understand the meaning of openness, in terms of content, peer interaction, assignment and cohort community.

google catContent openness – It is a no brainer that you need to enrol in a degree program or in a MOOC course to interact with content. What is worth noticing is that some MOOC courses make their content open by uploading their videos on Youtube. All that means, you don’t need to register before you engage with content. And more importantly, the content is Googlable. That is a vital step to make educational resources truly open.

Interaction openness – In both cases, you cannot view peer to peer interaction unless you sign up for a course. But my question would be – why is that? Would it be ultimately thinkable that discussion of a certain subject be open to anyone? That means, people can Google about what others talk about when they learn basic algebra or biology. Would the pros overshadow the cons?

Assignment openness – For a couple of NovoEd  (NovoEd began as a social learning MOOC platform but pivoted towards a corporate training platform over time) courses I took, the best fun I had was to review others’ assignments. That is when creativity really exploded by viewing  and reflecting on what others think and do. In an accredited online course, the design is less so. One of my instructor did provide a very sound rational – since it is graded you can only view others assignments after you complete your own. That is very fair. I reflected on these two experiences and think – does it mean MOOC is for fun and accredited course is for external recognition? What are the implications and consequences of that? And would it be possible these two trespass one day?

Cohort community openness – I had a mentor from my NovoEd course ‘Technology Entrepreneurship’. He contacted me recently to introduce a current learner group to pick up my brain. Happily I accepted. Because I had fun in that course. The course design was superb, my group members worked really well together.  My mentor was very supportive and encouraging. You can feel everyone puts their heart into teaching, learning and mentoring. That engaging experience left me with no hesitance to be connected to future cohorts.

I keep my mind open when I felt openness.

No pay, no pain


This is an attempt to touch upon learning experience, as part of my blog series to compare MOOCs with online degree programs. 

A friend of mine went to pursue a full-time master’s program after more than a decade in corporate world. Burying his head into reading endless papers and writing more, he jokingly said – “I used to be paid to enjoy life. Now I paid my tuition to suffer.”

That is bizarrely true. For consumer business, customers pay to satisfy their needs or craves. For entertainment business, movie-goers pay to have a pleasant time. Continuous education is something quite different – people pay their tuition to work (and suffer). At least, from their point of view.

I hardworking catam the online version of him. A couple of times I wanted to drop out my current online degree program. The workload was a bit intimidating. It is far from being fun to stay at home at night doing the reading and assignments. Especially after you hear the what others are going at night – party, social meetup, dinner, movie, play, talk. It feels like the whole world is having a great time, except me.

But I have invested heavily in doing the application work, I have paid my tuition (US$1000 per course). The sunk cost became quite high for me to shrug off the burden. I had to persist.

It is not the same with a MOOC course. For all the courses I signed up for, there is no entry barrier, no initial financial cost, I could exit any time I would like to (which I did in many occasions, shame on me).

But for those I persisted are those which are truly taught well or I had superior peer support. The entry barrier was close to zero (I just needed to sign up for the platform and for the course), I paid no money for them. The only thing that kepe me going was it was simply so much fun to do it. In reflection, these courses do share some commonality – the videos are fun; reading load is light; a lot of assignments ask me to DO things; I felt strong presence of my peers, either I meet them in local meet-up events, or I worked with them as mentor-mentee or small group peer. hollywood cat

I still cannot get my head around one question – where should online learning experience go between a commitment game and an entertainment game. Shall we attempt to lock learners with heavy initial investment so they have to stay, or shall we allue them with a Hollywood model – it is so light, enthrilling and engaging, that they would not want to leave?

To grow the cash cow for tomorrow – why MOOCs?


This is a second piece of economic analysis for my series of MOOCs vs. Online Degree Program, from university point of view. MOOC courses require higher development cost and lower delivery cost, compared to an online degree program course. A return on investment analysis shows an online degree program recoups money must easier much faster. So why on earth, so many universities got into MOOCs? 

According to Wharton School’s 2014 study, an average MOOC course takes 

  • Development cost of US$70,000 (US$20,000 goes to production cost)
  • Delivery cost of US$7,000

Another study by North Carolina General Assembly study in 2010 shows that to run a distance learning program course, the cost pattern reverses

  • Development cost of US$5,387
  • Delivery cost of US$17,564

It costs much more to develop a MOOC course but much less to deliver one. There are several reasons to explain the situation. 

Firstly, during course development stage, a MOOC course requires pedagogical redesign and production. Most educators will have to re-think the whole experience of designing a massive open course, which probably includes significant chunk of video materials. At the same time, an online degree program course might be based on existing campus course which does not necessarily require videos as part of the content materials. 

Secondly, during course delivery stage an online degree program student demands more support and handholding services. Since students are paying tuition, universities might be obliged to provide extra tutoring or administration services. Meanwhile since a MOOC course learner is not paying, they most likely would not expect the same level of support.  

What is the return for investment for universities to deliver a course online?

Let us take a look at variable cost first- the cost to deliver a course. 

To cover the delivery cost, a MOOC course shall have at least 350 learners purchasing a certificate (assuming a certificate charges US$20), to reach breakeven point. If 5% of a MOOC course learner buys a certificate, a course shall expect 7,000 learners to make the number work.

To cover a delivery cost for distance, for credit online course, a program needs 18 students (assuming a student pays US$1,000 per course, see my previous analysis for learner cost analysis blog. For a prestige university, getting 18 students for an online degree program is not an unreasonably goal. An online degree program, therefore, can be a cash cow.


A MOOC course requires higher upfront investment to develop, has less prospect to generate positive cash when it is delivered. Why, then, does the university get into MOOC business especially if it already has a cash cow – online degree program?

I believe a lot of it is due to the emerging global nature of education and a cash cow program needs to be further groomed for tomorrow’s higher education. MOOC is a way for programs to market to a global audience, for university to experiment what works in a more diversified classroom and to develop research based on a global database. My blogs will continue this discussion, by comparing the many differences between these two and their increasing blurring between them.

Sachet education – buy less, more often


To pay for the tuition of my current online degree program , a teacher in Kenya has to work for five full years, not spending money elsewhere at all. 

I am starting my series of MOOC vs. Online Degree program blog with learner cost analysis. To put things in perspective, I created my own index- how many years a teacher needs to work for to pay for continuous learning in educational technology. The teacher can be in London, California, Shanghai, Delhi and Kenya. The options for this continuous learning are (1) an online degree program (2) a campus full time degree program (3) a selection of relevant MOOC courses.

First, I was searching for a ballpark figure of annual salary of a school teacher (US$) in these places. A teacher in California has the highest annual income (US$54,552), London (US$42,402), Shanghai (US$6,000), Delhi (US$3,600). A teacher in Kenya earns the lowest absolute dollar value of salary (US$2,257) .

If the teacher wants to continue a journey in educational technology, the existing choices are limited but widening at least. Stanford’s Learning, Design and Technology campus degree program costs US$31,000 tuition alone (approximately US$2,000 per course). My purely online degree program of educational technology charges tuition for over US$11,000 (10 courses, US$1,000 per course). A Coursera (MOOC platform) specialisation track for 9 courses in teaching costs US$428 (9 courses, US$48 per course). (Note, it is not exactly educational technology, but I would expect sooner or later, this will improve)

In summary:

  • A campus program by a prestige university, US$2,000 per course, bundled offering.
  • A purely online program by a reputable university, US1,000 per course, bundled offering.
  • A MOOC specialisation track, US$48 per course, unbundled.

The situation is not bad for a teacher in a developed economy but quite unattainable for a teacher in developing countries. 

Going to Stanford will cost a teacher in California 7 months of his/her salary, a teacher in London 9 months salary. The same education costs a teacher in Shanghai over 5 years’ salary, almost 9 years for a teacher in Delhi. This is the worst for a teacher in Kenya, tuition alone eats almost 14 years of his/her salary.

How about doing this via an online degree program? The tuition will still cost a Kenya teacher 5 years of salary, (close to) 2 years’ salary for a Shanghai teacher and 3 years for someone in Delhi.

The next option can be Coursera’s specialisation track – Foundations of Teaching for Learning.This 9 course collection is provided by Common Wealth Education Trust. I have to say it is not exactly educational technology. But I am hoping that sooner or later something more relevant will be there. A teacher in Kenya will only need to put 2 months of his/her salary to pay for that whole program. He/she would also be able to pay an unbundled price, a US$48 unit price per course. That US$48 per course rate, is a quarter of his monthly salary. 

Sachet marketing shampoo

Sachet marketing is a concept that consumers buy less but more often. For example, instead of buying a shampoo bottle, consumers go to grandpa grocery shop and get shampoo in small package size. They are also more convenient to carry and transport, more flexible. The concept is proved a huge success in developing markets such as India.

Would we, one day, have a sachet education?


MOOCs vs Online Degree Program


It is only natural that someone like me working in MOOC industry will put so much faith in online education that he/she starts a purely online degree program. The program I joined has been running for a month now, long enough for me to begin a bit of reflection. How do I compare my experience doing numerous MOOC courses and doing an online degree program?

Since the very beginning there is always a voice asking ‘Is MOOC there to stay?’. I still have not formed a view on that. Having said that, the one key contribution of MOOC (I feel) is to empower students by making higher education teaching quality transparent and this is utterly important. 

For each theme below I will write a more elaborated blog after this summary reflection.

Money, money, money: MOOCs are free and online degree program costs money. I will write a separate piece on economics (using only public data). Does paid program mean premium quality? I will leave readers to make your own conclusion.

Culture in/exclusion: due to the massive distribution of MOOC learner demographics, it is much less likely to have a dominant culture in a MOOC course than in an online degree program. It is hardly surprising. When I was sitting in my classroom in Shanghai for my primary school education, there was no one from outside the city. The situation significantly changed when I enrolled my first MOOC course.

There is no doubt an online degree program is much more structured and systematic. MOOC is not there yet. However if I am to compare two courses of the same topic: a single course from an online program and a single MOOC course, the answer is different. Most of the exceptional courses I have taken are MOOCs. Maybe at this moment, no single MOOC platform has a well organised program yet. But with MOOC aggregators and the development of the sector, an optimistic like me would say things can be different very soon.

Presence of instructor – why to teach: My very very honest feeling as a learner: MOOC instructors teach out of passion, online degree program instructors teach out of duty. Again, this does not represent the whole picture. It is merely my personal experience.

Presence of the instructor – how to teach: Instructors can play various roles. They can be ‘ghost’, basically those who never make an online voice. They can be ‘fixers’, sending messages when something goes wrong. They can be cheerleaders, tutors, facilitators. .There is much to write about from student’s view – how do we feel about voice of the instructor.

Reiteration: in general, MOOC courses reiterate much faster compared to an online degree program. Again, need space for more analysis, worth a separate blog about it.

Group experience: I have not seen winner in this area. It is hard to begin with – how you organise good quality group work when people are scattering around the world? It requires much more than what technology can offer. If someone can crack this, I will say that is a revolutionary milestone in education.

I will continue writing about each theme after this summary. Don’t know how this will end (or is there an end?) but somehow I feel this is a good beginning.

cat and dog

Doraemon’s Magic Pocket


My good friend is pregnant and asked me how to spend her leisure time. My ex-colleague wanted to learn more about consumer psychology and behaviour. My cousin wants to switch his career into smart system in house decoration.

DoraemonWhat do I suggest? Take a MOOC course and learn about it. MOOC has become my Doraemon’s magic pocket. You have a question, check my MOOC pocket and find what suits you best.

My wish list is to tell everybody about it so that they have the tool to tackle their daily problems and objectives. My second wish list is to truly have the courses needed for them so they can find really valuable knowledge to be equipped at a relatively affordable expenses.

Sooner or later, every one will be a Doraemon itself!

Can videos replace textbooks?


I used to read hardcopy books. Then I switched to ebooks. Since I discovered tablet application to download videos, I started to do most of my learning by watching videos downloaded. 

It is super convenient, I can do it any time anywhere. (Recently I spent quite some time in hospital. While my mother was receiving her drip dIffusion, I was sitting next to her listening to videos about online learning). It is also a great way to use my ears more than to use my eyes. My eyesights got worse facing computer screen for long so it is good for a change.

cat-using-ipad-jpgWould videos replace textbooks? Maybe not now as there are still some drawbacks using videos as a tool to absorb information. As a user, I also started to write a few things I wish were there to support my audio learning. 

I wish there is a tool for me to take notes and form a mind map when listening to these videos. Many times I felt really enlightened and wish I had a pen to sketch it down, to represent my learning in a larger knowledge map.

I could not focus on a video more than 20 minutes even though I am really interested in the subject. Some of the videos about MOOCs are recordings of conferences and span 80 minutes. I admired the conference audience sitting in the room for so long without a break. I myself, as someone watching it from my tablet, can never last longer than 20 minutes. I wish these videos were shorter, modularised and indexed. 

I also wish there was a search function for these videos. Just as there is a search function for ebooks so I can quickly jump to the chapter I am particularly keen to read. 

Hope some entrepreneurial minds spot the opportunities here and make a go!